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水样易坏,怎样采集保存才好?
  • 发布日期:2019-11-11      浏览次数:566
    • 海南七星彩SHUIYANGDECAIJIYUBAOCUNSHISHUIHUAXUEYANJIUGONGZUODEZHONGYAOBUFEN,SHIYONGZHENGQUEDECAIYANGFANGFAJIHENHAODEBAOCUNYANGPINSHIBAOZHENGFENXIJIEGUONENGZHENGQUEFANYINGSHUIZHONGBEICEZUFENZHENSHIHANLIANGDEBIYAOTIAOJIAN。YINER,ZAIRENHEQINGKUANGXIADOUBIXUYANGEZUNSHOUQUYANGGUIZE,YIBAOZHENGFENXISHUJUDEKEKAOXING。

       

      海南七星彩GONGFENXIYONGDESHUIYANGYINGGAINENGGOUDAIBIAOGAISHUIDEQUANMIANXING,SHUIYANGCAIJIDEFANGFA、CISHU、SHIJIANDENGDOUYOUCAIYANGFENXIDEMUDELAIJUEDING。

       

      一、水样采集前的准备工作

      海南七星彩CAIYANGQIANXUGENJUJIANCEXIANGMUDENEIRONG、BEICEZUFENDEXINGZHIJICAIYANGFANGFADEJUTIYAOQIU,XUANZESHIYIDECAIYANGQIJUJIQIADANGCAIZHIDESHENGSHUIRONGQI,QINGXIGANJINGBEIYONG。CEDINGYOUJIWUHESHENGWUDENGSHUIYANGDECAIYANGHECUNFANGTONGCHANGXUANYONGYINGZHIBOLIRONGQI;CEDINGJINSHU、FANGSHEXINGYUANSUHEQITAWUJIWUZHISHUIYANGDECAIYANGHECUNFANGTONGCHANGXUANYONGGAOYADIMIDUJUYIXISULIAORONGQI,YOUXIEXIANGMUSUOJIANZUFENBUGOUWENDING,XUYAOTIQIANJIARENBAOCUNJI,BUTONGXIANGMUJIARUDEBAOCUNJIBUTONG,GUCUNSHUIRONGQIYEYINGXIANGYINGPIPEI,JIANCEXIANGMUHUXIANGBUGANRAOSHIKEKAOLVSHIYONGTONGYIGESHENGSHUIRONGQI,YIBIANJIANSHAOSUOXUCAIYANGRONGQI,TIGAOGONGZUOXIAOLV。TONGSHIHAIYAOZHUNBEIYIXIEBIYAODECAIYANGGONGJUHEXIANCHANGSUJIANSHEBEI(RUSHUITONG,CAIYANGQI、WENDUJI,YALIJI,YULVBISEJIDENG)。

       

      二、取样时的注意事项

      ①SHUIYANGDETIJIQUJUEYUFENXIXIANGMU、SUOXUJINGDUJISHUIDEKUANGHUADUDENG,TONGCHANGYINGCHAOGUOGEXIANGCEDINGSUOXUSHUIYANGZONGTIJIDE20%~30%。YIBANJIANDANFENXIXUSHUI500~1000ml,QUANFENXIXU3000ml;TEZHUCEDINGZEYINGGENJUFENXIDEXIANGMULAIQUEDING。

       

      ②SHENGSHUIYANGDERONGQIYINGSHIYONGWUSEYINGZHIBOLIPINGHUOJUYIXISULIAOPING。ZAIQUYANGQIANXIANYONGXIYE——10%YANSUANRONGYE、REFEIZAOSHUI、PIAOBAIFENRONGYEHUOHECHENGXIDIJIDENGRENYIZHONGBABOLIPINGXIGANJING。BOLIPINGDESAIZISHIMOKOUBOLISAI,YEKEYIYONGXIANGPISAI(SHIXIANBIXUYONG10%TANSUANNARONGYEZHUGUO,ZAIYI1+5YANSUANJISHUIZHUGUO,BINGYONGZHENGLIUSHUIXIGANJING)HUORUANMUSAI(YONGZHENGLIUSHUIZHUGUOBINGCHONGXIGANJING)。JINZHISHIYONGMULIAO,ZHITUANHEJINSHUZHIDESAIZI。

       

      海南七星彩③QUYANGQIANZHISHAOYONGSHUIYANGXIDIYANGPINGHESAIZI3CI,QUYANGSHISHUIYINGHUANHUANZHURUPINGZHONG,BUYAOQIPAO,BUYAOYONGLIJIAODONGSHUIYUAN,BINGZHUYIWUSHISHASHI、FUTUKELIHUOZHIWUZAZHIJINRUPINGZHONG。

       

      海南七星彩④CAIQUSHUIYANGSHI,BUNENGBAPINGZIWANQUANZHUANGMAN,ZHISHAOLIUYOU2cm(HUO10~20ml)DEKONGJIAN,YIFANGSHUIWENHUOQIWENGAIBIANSHIJIANGPINGSAIJIDIAO。

       

      海南七星彩⑤QUHAOSHUIYANG,SAIHAOPINGSAI(BAOZHENGBULOUSHUI),YONGSHILAHUOHUOQIFENGPINGKOU。RUSHUIYANGYUNSONGJIAOYUAN,ZEYINGYONGSHABUHUOSHENGZIJIANGPINGKOUCHANJIN,RANHOUZAIYISHILAHUOHUOQIFENGZHU。

       

      ⑥RUYUCAIQUPINGXINGFENXISHUIYANG,ZEBIXUZAITONGYANGTIAOJIANXIATONGSHIQUYANG。

       

      海南七星彩⑦CAIQUGAOWENQUANSHUISHUIYANGSHI,ZAIPINGSAISHANGCHAYIGENNEIJINGJIXIDEBOLIGUAN,DAISHUIYANGLENGQUEZHISHIWENHOU,BACHUBOLIGUAN,ZAIMIFENGPINGKOU。

       

      三、各类水样采集的一般方法

      (一)洁净水的采集

      海南七星彩①CAIJIZILAISHUIHUOJUYOUCHOUSHUISHEBEIDEJINGSHUISHI,YINGXIANFANGSHUISHUFENZHONG,SHIJILIUZAISHUIGUANZHONGDEZAZHICHONGXIDIAO,RANHOUCAIQUYANG。

       

      海南七星彩②MEIYOUCHOUSHUISHEBEIDEJINGSHUI,YINGGAIXIANJIANGSHUITONGCHONGXIGANJING,RANHOUZAIQUCHUJINGSHUIZHUANGRUYANGPING,HUOZHIJIEYONGSHUIYANGCAIJIPINGCAIJI。

       

      ③CAIJIHE、HUBIAOMIANDESHUIYANGSHI,YINGGAIJIANGYANGPINGJINRUSHUIMIANXIA20~50cmCHU,ZAIJIANGSHUIYANGZHUANGRUPINGZHONG。RUSHUIMIANJIAOKUANSHIYINGGAIZAIBUTONGDEDIFANGFENBIECAIJI,ZHEIYANGCAIJUYOUDAIBIAOXING。

       

      ④CAIJIHE、HUJIAOSHENCHUSHUIYANGSHI,YINGDANGYONGSHUIYANGCAIJIPING。JIANDANFANGFASHIYONGYIGENGANZI,SHANGMIANYONGJIAZIGUDINGYIGEQUYANGPING,HUOSHIYONGYIGENSHENGZIXIZHEYIGEQUYANGPING,JIANGYIXIJINGDEJINSHUKUAIHUOZHUANSHIJINXIPINGDI,LINGYONGYIGENSHENGZIXIZAIPINGSAISHANG,JIANGQUYANGPINGCHENJIANGDAOYUDINGDESHENDUSHI,ZAILASHENGZIDAKAIPINGSAIQUYANG。

       

      海南七星彩⑤CAIJICEDINGSHUIZHONGRONGJIEYANGDESHUIYANG,ZEANXIASHUFANGFAJINXING,BINGSHIYONGRONGLIANGWEI250mlHUO300mlRONGJIEYANGCEDINGPING,RUGUOMEIYOUZHEIZHONGPING,KEYONG250mlMOKOUJINMIBOLISAISHIJIPING。CAIJISHUIYANGSHI,YINGZHUYIBUYAOSHIKONGQIJINRUSHUIYANG。KECAIYONGRUXIAFANGFA。

       

      a.CAIJIZILAISHUIYANGSHI,YAOYONGXIANGPIGUANJIEZAISHUILONGTOUSHANG,BINGBAXIANGPIGUANDELINGYIDUANCHADAOPINGDIBU;DAIPINGZHONGSHUIYANGZHUANGMANBINGXIANGWAIYICHUSHUFENZHONGHOU,QUCHUXIANGPIGUAN,XUNSUGAIHAOBOLISAI。

       

      b.DUIYUTANGSHUI、JINGSHUI、XUSHUICHIZHONGDESHUIYANG,CAIJISHIZHUNBEIYIGEYANGPING(250mlHUO300ml)YUYIGEDAPING(500ml),YANGPINGZAIXIA,DAPINGZAISHANG,CHUANLIANGUDING,YONGYIJINGBIAOMINGSHENDUDECUSHENGBANGDING。CAIJISHUIYANGSHI,JIANGQUYANGSHEBEITOURUSHUIZHONG,SHIZHIXUNSUXIACHENBINGDADAOSUOXUYAODESHENDU。CISHISHISHUIYANGJINRUYANGPINGBINGGANCHUDAPINGDEKONGQI,ZHIZHIDAPINGBUZAICUNYOUKONGQI。TICHUSHUIMIANHOU,JIANGYANGPINGQUXIA,XUNSUYONGBOLISAIGAIJIN。SONGLAIDESHUIYANGRUGUOZHUANGZAIDAPINGZHONG,YINGGAIYONGHONGXIFANGFABASHUIYANGYIRUYANGPINGZHONG。

      海南七星彩SHUIYANGCAIJIWANBI,YAOJIANGYANGPINGBIANHAO,YIMIANCUOLUAN。JIUDIJINXINGHUAXUECHULI,SHIRONGJIEYANGGUDING(FOUZEYINGBAOCUNZAI4℃ZUOYOU,ZAISONGDAOSHIYANSHI);DANDIDINGGONGZUOKEZAISHIYANSHIJINXING。

       

      ⑥RUGUOCAIJICEDINGMOUXIEQITAXIANGMUYONGDESHUIYANG,KEYIGENJUTEDINGYAOQIUJIARUBAOCUNJI。

       

      (二)生活污水的采集

      SHENGHUOWUSHUIDECHENGFENFUZA,BIANHUAHENDA,WEISHISHUIYANGJUYOUDAIBIAOXINGJIUBIXUFENDUOCICAIJIHOUJIAYIHUNHE。YIBANSHIMEIXIAOSHICAIJIYICI(CAIJISHUIYANGTIJIKEGENJULIULIANGQUSHIDANGDEBILI),JIANG24hNEISHOUJIDESHUIYANGHUNHE,ZUOWEIDAIBIAOXINGYANGPIN。

       

      SHENGSHUIYANGDEPINGZIXUYONG3000mlDEXIKOUPING。HOUZONGRONGLIANGYINGGAIZAI2500~3000ml。SHUIYANGYINGBAOCUNZAIBINGSHUILI,WENDUZAI4~5℃。QUSHUIYANGDEPINGZIJISHEBEIYAOMEITIANYONGQINGSHUICHONGXIGANJING,FANGZHIWUSHUINEIXIJUNDESHENGZHANG。QUWUSHUIHOU,PINGZIYAOLIKETIEHAOBIAOQIANZHIBINGTUSHANGSHILA,FANGZHIBIAOZHUDEZITUNSE。

       

      WUSHUIYANGCAIJIHOU,YINGGAIJINKUAISONGWANGSHIYANSHIFENXI。CEDINGRONGJIEYANG、SHENGWUXUYANGLIANG、YULV、LIUHUAQINGDENGXIANGMU,BIXUYUCAIYANGHOULIKEJINXING。RUYUTESHUQINGXING,BUNENGLIKEFENXI,KEJIARUBAOCUNJI。RUGUOQUEDINGYAOJIABAOCUNJI,YIKAISHIJIUJIA,SHISHUIYANGJINRUSHUIYANGPINGZHONGSHIJIYUBAOCUNJIHUNHE。

       

      ①ZUOSHENGWUHUAXUEXUYANGLIANGFENXIDESHUIYANGBUKEJIARURENHEBAOCUNJI。

       

      ②YIBANFENXIYONGDESHUIYANGKEYUMEISHENGSHUIZHONGJIARU5mllvFANG(YUXIANYONGZHENGLIUSHUIXI2~3CI,JIASHAOLIANGWUSHUILIUSUANMEIXISHUI,CHUYUZONGSEPINGZHONG)ZUOBAOCUNJI,SHISHUIYANGDEHAOYANGLIANGBUZHIYUGAIBIAN。

       

      ③RUOCEGELEIHANDANHUAHEWU,KEJIARUSHILIANGHUAXUECHUNLIUSUAN,SHILIUSUANNONGDUYUEWEI0.015mol/LJIKE。DANJINGBENFACHULIGUODESHUIHUIJIANGDIXUANFUXINGGUTIJIHAOYANGLIANG。

       

      (三)工业废水的采集

      YOUYUGONGYEGONGYIGUOCHENGDETESHUQINGKUANG,GONGYEFEISHUICHENGFENWANGWANGZAIJIFENZHONGNEIJIUYOUGAIBIAN。SUOYISHUIYANGCAIJIFANGFABISHENGHUOWUSHUIDECAIJIGENGWEIFUZA。

       

      海南七星彩CAIYANGDEFANGFA、CISHU、SHIJIANDENGDOUYINGGENJUFENXIMUDEHEJUTITIAOJIANERDING。DANSHIGONGTONGDEYUANZESHISUOCAIJIDESHUIYANGYAOYOUZUGOUDEDAIBIAOXING。RUFEISHUIDESHUIZHIBUWENDING,ZEYINGMEIGESHUFENZHONGQUYANGYICI,RANHOUJIANGZHENGGESHENGCHANGUOCHENGSUOQUDESHUIYANGHUNHEJUNYUN。RUGUOSHUIZHIBIJIAOWENDING,ZEKEMEIGE1~2hQUYANGYICIERHOUHUNHEJUNYUN。RUGUOFEISHUISHIJIANXIXINGPAIFANG,ZEYINGSHIYINGZHEIZHONGTEDIANERQUYANG。

       

      海南七星彩SHUIYANGCAIJISHIHAIYINGKAOLVDAOQUSHUILIANGWENTI,MEICIQUSHUILIANGYINGGENJUFEISHUILIANGANBILIZENGJIAN。

       

      海南七星彩ZAICEDINGMOUXIETEDINGDEXIANGMUSHI,KEYIXIANGSHUIYANGZHONGJIARUMOUZHONGBAOCUNJI,ZHEIJIUSHIGECEDINGXIANGMUERDING。DANYINWEICHENGFENFUZAHECEDINGXIANGMUDEGEBUXIANGTONG,RENYIBAOCUNJIJUNYOUCHANSHENGYINGXIANGDEKENENG,MEIYOUYIZHONGPUBIANSHIYONGDEGONGYEFEISHUIBAOCUNJI。YIBANERYAN,DIWENBAOCUNBIJIAOKEXING。

       

      海南七星彩CHUYISHANGTEDIANWAI,QITAYINGZHUYISHIXIANGTONGSHANG。GONGYEFEISHUIQUYANGFANGFAJIANBIAO1。

       

      海南七星彩BIAO1 GONGYEFEISHUIQUYANGFANGFA

      取样方法方法梗概适用范围采用手段
      一次水样采集法

      ZAIFEISHUIPAIFANGKOU、YANDENGQUYANGWEIZHICHU,DUISHUIYANGJINXINGYICICAIJI

      YONGYUSHENGCHANGONGYIWENDINGHEPAIFANGDESHUIZHIBIANHUABUDADECHANGHE

      无色硬质玻璃容器、聚乙烯塑料容器或水桶
      平均水样采集法在废水排放口、堰、治理设备的取样位置处每隔一段时间(如1h,2h,…)采集水样,然后等量混合成混合样品用于生产工艺不稳定且排放的水质经常有变化的场合,可以获得采样期间的水质平均值

      SUIKELIYONGSHANGSHUSHOUDUAN,DANHENFEIGONGSHI,YIYONGZIDONGSHUIYANGCAIJIQI

      动态水样采集法在上述取样位置处于一定期间内(1日,1周,…),每隔一定时间(如0.5h,1h,…)采集水样一次,分别对水样分析用于了解排放的工业废水中有害物含量的动态变化规律,可获得某一时间里的水平均值、大、小值宜用自动水样采集器
      比例平均水样采集法

       

      ZAISHANGSHUQUYANGWEIZHICHU,GENJUPAIFANGFEISHUILIULIANGFENBUQUXIAN,ANZHENGBIGUANXIFENPEISHUIYANGCAIJILIANG,RANHOUFENXI

      用于生产工艺不稳定、排放口废水流量变化较大的场合,可获得采样期间的平均值宜用与流量自动装置匹配的自动水样采集器

       

      (四)自然降水的采集

      海南七星彩JIANGSHUIYANGPINTONGCHANGYOUYOUGUANBUMENXUANDIANCAIJI,50WANRENYIXIARENKOUDECHENGSHISHE2GEDIAN,50WANRENYISHANGRENKOUDECHENGSHISHE3GEDIAN。CAIYANGDIANDEBUSHEYINGJIANGUDAOCHENGQU、XIANGCUNHUOQINGJIEDUIZHAODIAN。CAIYANGDIANDESHEZHIYINGKAOLVQUYUDEHUANJINGTEDIAN,JINLIANGBIKAIPAIFANGSUAN、JIANWUZHIHEFENCHENDEJUBUWURANYUAN,YINGZHUYIBIKAIZHUYAOJIEDAOJIAOTONGWURANYUANDEYINGXIANG。CAIYANGDIANZHOUWEIYINGWUZHEDANGYUXUEDEGAODASHUMUHUOJIANZHUWU。

       

      CAIJIYUSHUIKEYIYONGZIDONGCAIYANGQI,YEKEYONGJUYIXISULIAOXIAOTONG(SHANGKOUZHIJINGHEGAOJUNWEI20cmZUOYOU);CAIJIXUESHUIDERONGQI(JUYIXISULIAO)DESHANGKOUZHIJINGZAI40cmYISHANG。FANGZHIWEIZHIGAOYUJICHUMIAN1.2m。

       

      海南七星彩MEICIJIANGYU(XUE)KAISHI,LIJIJIANGBEIYONGDECAIYANGQIFANGZHIZAIYUDINGDECAIYANGDIANZHIJIASHANG。MEICIJIANGYUQUQUANGUOCHENGYUYANG,YITIANZHONGRUOYOUJICIJIANGYUGUOCHENGJIUXUCEJICIpHZHI。RUYULIANXUJITIANJIANGYU,ZEMEITIANSHANGWU8:00CEYICI,JI24hSUANYICIJIANGYU。

       

      CUNFANGJIANGSHUIDERONGQIYIBAISEDEJUYIXISULIAOPINGWEIHAO,BUNENGYONGDAIYANSEDESULIAOPING,YEBUYAOYONGBOLIPINGLAIZHUANG,YIMIANZAICUNFANGGUOCHENGZHONGYINBOLIPINGZHONGJIA、NA、GAI、MEIDENGZAZHIDERONGCHUERWURANYANGPIN。

       

      YOUYUJIANGSHUIZHONGCHANGCHANGHANYOUCHENAIKELIWU、WEISHENGWUDENGWEILI,SUOYICHULECEDINGpHZHIHEDIANDAOZHIYIWAI,YIBANJUNXUGUOLV,DANBOLISHAXINLOUDOUHELVZHIDEKONGJINGTAIDA,YIYOUJIWEIKONGLVMOWEIHAO。

       

      (五)海水的采样

      HAISHUIWENDUHEYANDUSHIHAIYANGSHUITIJIBENDEWULIYAOSU,QILIANGZHIDUIMEIYANGZHONGDEQITAWULIYAOSURUMIDUHESHENGSUDEXINGZHI、HAISHUIDEHUAXUEHESHENGWUTEXINGYIJISHUITIYUNDONGJUNYOUZHEZHONGYAODEYINGXIANG。SUIZHEGUHAIYANGXUE、HAIYANGSHENGTAIXUE、HAIYANGDIZHIXUEDENGXUEKEDEXUNSUFAZHAN,DUISUOCAIJIHAISHUIYANGPINDEYAOQIUYEYUELAIYUEGAO,TANCEHAISHUIZHONGTINGLEIQITIDENGDIQIUHUAXUEZHIBIAODEBIANHUATEZHENGJIQIYICHANGJIUCHENGWEIQIZHONGYIXIANGZHONGYAODEZHIBIAO,ERSHENHAIFENCENGQIMISHUIYANGCAIJIXITONGJIUSHIWEILESHIYINGCIXUYAOERZHUANMENYANJIUSHEJIDE。

       

      MUQIANSHIYONGDECHUANZAIHAISHUIDUOTONGDAODUOCENGMIANSHUIYANGCAIJIQI,SHANGMIANZHUANGYOUYIGEMADAQUDONGDEZIDONGSHIFANGZHUANGZHI,BINGJICHENGLEYIGEYALICHUANGANQI,YONGLAICELIANGYONGHUYUSHEDESHENDU,DAGONGZUOSHENDUKEDA6000m。CHUANGANQIDECELIANGFANWEIKEGENJUYONGHUDEGONGZUOYAOQIUJINXINGXUANZE,ZHENGTAOXITONGKEYIZAICHUANSHANGJINXINGYUANCHENGKONGZHI。

       

      海南七星彩YOUXIESHEBEIGONGSIKAIFALEGENGDUOYONGTUDEZIDONGXULIEHAISHUICAISHUIQI,DUOYICIKEYICAIJI48GEYANGPIN,BINGLIYONGBENGHEYIGEDUOTONGDAOYANGPINFENPEIFAXIANGBUTONGDECAIYANGPINGZHONGZHURUYANGPIN,CAIYANGSHIXUYAOYIDINGDESHIJIAN。DANJIBENSHANGDOUBUJUBEIYUANWEIDIRAOCAIJIGONGNENG,BUSHIHEZAIYIYIDINGSUDUXIAFANGDEGUOCHENGZHONGCAIJIHAIYANGZHUMIANSHANGBUTONGSHENDUDEYANGPIN。LIUGUANGHUDENGSHEJIDEXINXINGSHENHAIFENCENGQIMISHUIYANGCAIJIXITONGCAIYONGBAOQICAISHUIPING,MEIGECAIYANGPINGCHENGSHUZHIBUZHI,ZAIXITONGXIAFANGGUOCHENGZHONGLIYONGHAISHUIDUIQIJINXINGCHONGXI,FANGZHIBUTONGCENGWEIHAISHUIZHIJIANDEWURAN,ERQIEKESHIXIANQIMICAIYANG。

       

      (六)含污染物自来水的采集

      ZILAISHUISHENGCHANGONGYILIUCHENGJIAOZHANG,SHUIYUANBUTONGSHIYOUDUWURANWUDEZHONGLEIHUIYOUSUOBUTONG,WANGWANGZHINENGZHENDUIXINGDIXUANZEYIXIEHUANJINGYOUXIANKONGZHIWURANWUYUYIJIANKONG。

       

      DUIYUDUOHUANFANGTING、YOUJILVNONGYAO、FENLEI,CAIJIGUOCHENGZHONGKESHIYONG4LDEDAIGUIJIAOMIFENGDIANDEZONGSEXIKOUBOLIPINGHUO10LZONGSEBOLIPINGCAIJISHUIYANG,CAIYONG24hLIANXUCAIYANGJISHU,CAIWANHOUHUNYUN,XIEMINGBIAOQIAN。HANYOUHUIFAXINGYOUJIWUDEYANGPINKESHIYONGDAIYOUJUSIFUYIXIMIFENGDIANDELUOKOUZONGSECAIYANGPING。XUCEDINGHANLVYOUJIHUAHEWUDENGXIAODUFUCHANWUSHI,YANGPINPINGZHONGXUXIANJIARU25mgKANGHUAIXUESUAN,ZAIXIANGYANGPINPINGZHONGCHONGYANGZHIYILIU(ZHUYIBUYAOCHONGZOUZHENGZAIRONGJIEDEKANGHUAIXUESUAN),YANGPINCHONGMANSHIBUYINGHANYOUQIPAO,MEI20mlYANGPINZHONGJIARU1+1YANSUANDIAOJIEYANGPINpH<2,ZAIMIFENGYANGPINPINGKOU,RANHOUYONGLIZHENDANG1min。JIARUSHIZHONGDUANCAIYANG(CONGSHUILONGTOUCAIYANG),ZEYIXIANYONG1LDEDASHAOBEICAIJI,RANHOUFENZHUANG。SUOYOUYANGPINDOUYAOCAIJIPINGXINGYANG。

       

      XIANCHANGKONGBAIXIANZAISHIYANSHIYONGZHENGLIUSHUIZHUANGMANYANGPINPING(CHULITONGSHANG),RANHOUDAIDAOXIANCHANG,ZAIYUXIANCHANGYANGPINYIQIDAIHUISHIYANSHIBAOCUN。CUNFANGYANGPINSHI,YINGJINLIANGBIMIANYOUJIWUQITIDEJIAOCHAWURANWENTI。

       

      四、水样的保存

      GEZHONGSHUIZHIDESHUIYANGCONGCAIJIDAOFENXICEDINGZHEIDUANSHIJIAN,YOUYUHUANJINGTIAOJIANDEBIANHUA、WEISHENGWUXINCHENDAIXIEHUODONGDEYINGXIANG,HUIYINQISHUIYANGZHONGMOUXIEWULICANSHUJIHUAXUEZUFENDEBIANHUA。WEILESHIZHEIXIEBIANHUAJINLIANGXIAO,YINGJINKUAIFENXICEDINGHECAIQUBIYAODECUOSHI(YOUXIEXIANGMUHAIBIXUZAIXIANCHANGCEDING)。RUGUOBUNENGJINKUAICEDING,JIUYAOJINXINGSHUIYANGDEBAOCUN。SHUIYANGDEBAOCUNYINGDADAOJIANMANHUAHEWUSHUIJIE、BIMIANFENJIE、JIANSHAOHUIFAYURONGQIDEXIFUSUNSHIDENGYAOQIU。CAIJIYUFENXIZHIJIANDEYUNXUJIANGESHIJIANQUJUEYUSHUIYANGDEXINGZHIHEBAOCUNTIAOJIAN,MEIYOUMINGQUEDEGUIDING,YIBANRENWEI,XIANGGUANSHUIYANGDEYUNXUCUNFANGSHIJIANTONGCHANGWEI:JIEJINGDESHUI,<72h;QINGDUWURANDESHUI,<48h;YANZHONGWURANDESHUI,<12h。TONGSHI,XUZAIJIANYANBAOGAOZHONGZHUMINGCAIYANGHEFENXIDESHIJIAN。

       

      SHUIYANGDEZHUYAOBAOCUNFANGFARUXIA。

      (1)LENGZANGFA:SHUIYANGZAI4℃ZUOYOUBAOCUN,FANGZAIANCHUHUOBINGXIANGZHONG。ZHEIYANGKEYIYIZHISHENGWUHUODONG,JIANHUANWULIZUOYONGHEHUAXUEZUOYONGDESUDU。ZHEIZHONGBAOCUNFANGFADUIYIHOUDEFENXICEDINGMEIYOUFANGAI。

       

      (2)HUAXUEFA:

      海南七星彩①JIASHENGWUYIZHIJI:JIARUSHENGWUYIZHIJIKEYIZUZHISHENGWUZUOYONG。RUSHILIANGlvHUAGONG(JIANYANXIANGMUYOUGONGDECHUWAI),HUOMEISHENGSHUIYANGJIA0.5~1.0mlDEBEN、JIABENHUOlvFANGDENG。

       

      ②SUAN(JIAN)HUAFA:WEIFANGZHIJINSHUYUANSUCHENDIANHUOBEIRONGQIXIFU,KEJIASUANZHIpH<2,TONGCHANGJIAXIAOSUAN,BUFENZUFENKEJIALIUSUAN,YIBANKEBAOCUNSHUZHOU。DUIGONGDEBAOCUNSHIJIANYAODUANYIXIE,YIBANWEI7d。YOUXIEYANGPINYAOQIUJIARUJIAN,LIRUCEDINGqingHUAWUSHUIYANGYINGJIAJIANZHIpH=11BAOCUN,YIMIANqingHUAWUCHANSHENGHCNERYICHU。

       

      ③JIARUMOUXIEWENDINGBAOCUNJI:SUOJIARUDEBAOCUNJIBUYINGGANRAOQITAZUFENDECEDING。BAOCUNJIKESHIXIANJIARUKONGPINGZHONGYIKEZAICAIYANGHOULIJIJIARUSHUIYANGZHONG。JINGCHANGSHIYONGDEBAOCUNJIYOUGEZHONGSUAN、JIANJISHAJUNJI,JIARULIANGYINXUYAOERYI。YIBANJIARUBAOCUNJIDETIJIHENXIAO,QIYINGXIANGKEYIHULVE,DANMOUXIESHIJIZHONGSUOHANDEJINSHUZAZHIDUIWEILIANGFENXIKENENGHUIYOUJIAODAYINGXIANG,YINGJIANQUKONGBAIZHI。

       

      SHUIYANGBAOCUNDEYIBANFANGFAJIANBIAO2。JIANGSHUIYANGPINDEBAOCUNJIANBIAO3。

       

      BIAO2 YIBANSHUIYANGBAOCUNFANGFA

       

      测定项目要求体积,V/ml储存用容器保存温度保存剂可保存时间备注
      塑料玻璃
      酸度100++4℃冷存 24h 
      碱度100++4℃冷存 24h 
      pH25++冷至4℃现场测定   
      温度1000++现场测定   
      电导率100++4℃冷存 24h水样应恢复至25℃时测定;现场测定
      浑浊度100++4℃冷存 7d 
      色度50 +4℃冷存 24h 
      50++4℃冷存 24h 
       ++4℃冷存 24h 
      生化需氧量(BOD)1000++4℃冷存 6h 
      化学需氧量(COD)50++ 硫酸至pH<27d 
      总有机碳(TOC)25++ 硫酸至pH<27d 
      悬浮物100 +现场过滤 六个月 
      残留物可滤过100++4℃冷存 7d 
      残留物不可过滤100++4℃冷存 7d 
      残留物总量100++4℃冷存 7d 
      残留物挥发性100++4℃冷存 7d 
      沉降物1000++无要求 

      24h

       
      硬度100++  7d 
      溶解氧(电极法)300 + 现场测定  
      Winkler法300 + 现场固定4~8h 
      磷化合物       
      溶解性50++现虑4℃ 24h加HgCI2
      可水解50++冷至4℃硫酸至pH<224h加HgCI2
      总磷50++冷至4℃ 7d加HgCI2
      可溶性总磷50++  7d加HgCI2
      氟化物300+ 冷至4℃NaOH至pH=1224h 
      氯化物50++  7d 
      需氯量50++现场测定 24h 
      溴化物100++冷至4℃ 24h 
      碘化物100++冷至4℃ 24h 
      qing化物500++冷至4℃NaOH至pH>824h 

       

      DAN,ANDAN

       

      1000

       

      +

       

      +

       

      LENGZHI4℃

       

      LIUSUANZHIpH<2

       

      24h

      KEYONG>2

      ×10-4mol/L的HgCI2;但一般不用

       

      KAISHIFA

       

      500

       

      +

       

      +

       

      LENGZHI4℃

       

      LIUSUANZHIpH<2

       

      24h

      KEYONG>2

      ×10-4mol/LDEHgCI2;DANYIBANBUYONG

       

       

      XIAOSUANGEN

       

       

      100

       

       

      +

       

       

      +

       

       

      LENGZHI4℃

       

       

       

      24h

      KEYONG>2

       

      ×10-4mol/LDEHgCI2;DANYIBANBUYONG

       

       

      YAXIAOSUANGEN

       

       

      50

       

       

      +

       

       

      +

       

       

      LENGZHI4℃

       

       

       

      24h

      KEYONG>2

       

      ×10-4mol/LDEHgCI2;DANYIBANBUYONG

      硫酸根50++冷至4℃ 7d 
      硫化物500++ 

      2mlYISUANXIN

      24h 
      亚硫酸根50++冷至4℃ 24h 
      100++ 硝酸至pH<26个月 
      50+  

      海南七星彩XIAOSUANZHIpH<2 

      6个月 
      50+ 冷至4℃ 7d 

      LV、TONG、TIE、

      MEI、XIN

       +  HCI(2mol/L)2个月 
       +     
      镉(溶解性) + 过滤硝酸至pH<26个月 
      总量    硝酸至pH<2  
      铬(6价) 新硬质瓶  

      JIAXIAOSUANZHIpH

      <2,DUOJIA5ml

      当天 

      GE(ZONGLIANG)

       新硬质瓶  

      JIAXIAOSUANZHIpH

      <2,DUOJIA5ml

      当天 
      汞(溶解性)100+  

      GUOLV,JIAXIAO

      SUANZHIpH<2

      38d(BO)

      13d(SU)

       
      总量100+  

      JIAXIAOSUANZHI

       pH<2

      38d(BO)

      13d(SU)

       
       +   pH<2  
      铅、银    

      XIAOSUAN,pH<2

      2个月 
          pH<1.555d 
       + 过滤pH<1.53个月 
      500    0. 1 mol/L HCI  
      酚类500  冷至4℃磷酸至pH<424h 
      三氯乙醛 +   尽快分析 
      氨三乙酸(NTA)50+ 至4℃ 7d 
      油和脂1000+ 至4℃硫酸至pH<27d 
      阴离子洗涤剂250+  硝酸至pH<224h 
      有机氯农药 DDT +  尽快分析可加入水样量0.1%的浓硫酸  
      3,4-苯并芘 用棕色瓶    过滤除浮游生物,滤纸预先用石油醚处理
      多环芳烃   4℃ 6d 

      ①“+”BIAOSHIKEYONG。

       

      BIAO3 JIANGSHUIYONGPINBAOCUNFANGFA

       

      被测项目保存容器保存方法保存时间
      电导率聚乙烯瓶冰箱尽快测定

      pHZHI

      聚乙烯瓶冰箱尽快测定
      微信图片_20190404152850.png聚乙烯瓶冰箱尽快测定
      微信图片_20190404152957.png聚乙烯瓶冰箱尽快测定
      微信图片_20190404153009.png聚乙烯瓶冰箱尽快测定
      F-聚乙烯瓶冰箱1个月内测定
      CI-聚乙烯瓶冰箱1个月内测定
      微信图片_20190404153017.png聚乙烯瓶冰箱1个月内测定
      K+聚乙烯瓶冰箱1个月内测定
      Na+聚乙烯瓶冰箱1个月内测定
      Ca2+聚乙烯瓶冰箱1个月内测定
      Mg2+聚乙烯瓶冰箱1个月内测定

       

       

      五、分析项目的确定

      FENXIXIANGMUXUSHISHUIYANGLEIXINGBUTONGERYOUSUOQUBIE。KEGONGCANKAOBIAO4。

       

      海南七星彩BIAO4 SHUIYANGCEDINGCANKAOXIANGMU

       

      DAIJIANSHUIYANGDEZHONGLEI

      需要检测的项目及注意事项

      TIANRANSHUI、DIMIANSHUI、DIXIASHUIDEFENXI

      细菌检验,显微镜观察,色,水温,大气温度,臭,味,浑浊度或透明度,总固体,溶解性固体,氯化物,耗氧量,氟化物,碘化物,pH值,各种碱度,总硬度,氨氮,蛋白性氮(或有机氮),亚硝酸盐氮,硝酸盐氮,需氯量,铁,锰等;必要时做全矿物质分析

       

      YINYONGSHUI、ZILAISHUIDEFENXI

      细菌检验,显微镜观察,色,水温,臭,味,浑浊度或透明度,总固体,氯化物,耗氧量,pH值,各种碱度,总硬度,氨氮,蛋白性氮,亚硝酸盐氮,硝酸盐氮等;必要时做特殊矿物质分析或个别成分分析

       

      KUANGQUANSHUIDEFENXI

      色,水温,大气温度,密度,臭,味,浑浊度或透明度,总固体,悬浮性固体,氯化物,耗氧量,氟化物,pH值,各种碱度,总硬度(碳酸盐硬度及非碳酸盐硬度),游离二氧化碳,氨氮,硫化氢,其他放射性气体,钙,镁,钾,铁、铵,硫酸盐,重碳酸盐,碳酸盐,二氧化硅,亚硝酸盐,硝酸盐;必要时做其他离子的分析
      游泳池水的分析除了细菌检验外,一般只需测定浑浊度或透明度,pH值,总余氯及游离性余氯;必要时做耗氧量,氨氮,蛋白性氮等分析

       

       

      GEZHONGWUSHUIDEFENXI

      YOUYUGEZHONGWUSHUIXINGZHIGEYI,FENXIXIANGMUYEGEBUXIANGTONG

      海南七星彩SHENGHUOWUSHUI:ZHEZHONGSHENGWUHUAXUEHAOYANGLIANGJIXUANFUXINGGUTIDENGDECEDING

      GONGYEWUSHUI:HAIYINGZHUYIXIDIJI,PENG,FEN,qingHUAWU,GE,GONG,SHEN,XI,YOUWUDENG

      海南七星彩BIYAOSHIZUOTEDINGLIZIHUOZUFENDEFENXI

      JIANYANSHUICHULIXINGSHI:XIANGMUKAOHEZEZUOQUANMIANFENXI,GEBIESHEBEIKAOHE,KEANYAOQIUZHIZUOGEBIECEDINGYANJIULIYONGWUSHUIGUANGAIZEJIACELIN、JIA

       

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